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Keywords: Exploratory-analysis  or metagenomics  or Populations  or Annotation  or Introduction bioinformatics 


A Critical Guide to the PDB

This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides a brief outline of the Protein Data Bank – the PDB – the world’s primary repository of biological macromolecular structures. The rationale for creating the resource and the kinds of information it provides are discussed,...

Scientific topics: Database management

Keywords: Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction pdb, Protein structure analysis, Protein structure databases, Protein structures

A Critical Guide to the PDB https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-the-pdb This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides a brief outline of the Protein Data Bank – the PDB – the world’s primary repository of biological macromolecular structures. The rationale for creating the resource and the kinds of information it provides are discussed, and issues relating to its evolution and growth are explored. Specifically, this Guide introduces the principal features of the PDB, the nature (and quality) of its contents and how these may be interrogated. On reading this Guide, users will be able to: i) explain some of the ways in which knowledge of protein structures is useful; ii) identify the constituent databases of the wwPDB; iii) explain key features of the RCSB PDB in terms of its data distribution, growth and redundancy statistics; iv) search the PDB using simple and advanced keywords and full sequences, and analyse differences between them; and v) explain various structural quality criteria, and infer the quality of individual PDB entries. Database management Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction pdb, Protein structure analysis, Protein structure databases, Protein structures Beginners 2018-09-08
A Critical Guide to InterPro

This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides an introduction to the InterPro database, the largest, most comprehensive, integrated protein family database in the world. The rationale for creating the resource, the nature of its contributing databases and the kinds of...

Scientific topics: Database management

Keywords: Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction interpro, Protein family classification, Protein family databases, Protein family hierarchies, Protein function annotation, Protein sequence analysis

A Critical Guide to InterPro https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-interpro This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides an introduction to the InterPro database, the largest, most comprehensive, integrated protein family database in the world. The rationale for creating the resource, the nature of its contributing databases and the kinds of information they provide are discussed, and the role of InterPro in protein classification and function-annotation projects is outlined. Specifically, this Guide introduces the principal components of the InterPro database, the differences between them, and how their integration creates a resource whose diagnostic power is greater than the sum of its parts. On reading this Guide, users will be able to: i) explain how protein family databases are used to help annotate uncharacterised protein sequences; ii) identify InterPro’s constituent data resources and explain the main methods that underpin them; iii) search InterPro using keywords and full sequences; iv) analyse and interpret search results in terms of protein family hierarchies, their structural domains and functional features; and v) track the provenance of InterPro’s annotations. Database management Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction interpro, Protein family classification, Protein family databases, Protein family hierarchies, Protein function annotation, Protein sequence analysis Beginners 2018-09-08
A Critical Guide to the UniProtKB Flat-file Format

This Critical Guide briefly presents the need for biological databases and for a standard format for storing and organising biological data. Web-based interfaces have made databases more user-friendly, but knowledge of the underlying file format offers a deeper understanding of how to navigate...

Scientific topics: Database management

Keywords: Flat file databases, Flat files, Introduction bioinformatics, Uniprotkb flat file format

A Critical Guide to the UniProtKB Flat-file Format https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-the-uniprotkb-flat-file-format This Critical Guide briefly presents the need for biological databases and for a standard format for storing and organising biological data. Web-based interfaces have made databases more user-friendly, but knowledge of the underlying file format offers a deeper understanding of how to navigate and mine the information they contain, so that humans and machines can get the most out of them. This Guide explores the file format that underpins one of today’s most popular protein sequence databases – UniProtKB. Specifically, this Guide introduces the concept of database ‘flat-files’, and examines features of the UniProtKB flat-file format. On reading this Guide, users will be able to: i) identify key fields within UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL flat-files; ii) explain what these fields mean, what information they contain and what the information is used for; iii) analyse the information in different fields and infer structural and functional features of a sequence; iv) examine and investigate the provenance of annotations; and v) compare annotations at different time-points and evaluate the likely impact of annotation changes. Database management Flat file databases, Flat files, Introduction bioinformatics, Uniprotkb flat file format Beginners 2018-09-08
A Critical Guide to UniProtKB

This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides a brief outline of the UniProt protein sequence database, with a particular focus on the UniProt Knowledgebase – UniProtKB. The rationale for creating the resource, its contributing databases and the kinds of information...

Scientific topics: Database management

Keywords: Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction uniprot, Protein sequence databases, Uniprot knowledgebase

A Critical Guide to UniProtKB https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-uniprotkb This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides a brief outline of the UniProt protein sequence database, with a particular focus on the UniProt Knowledgebase – UniProtKB. The rationale for creating the resource, its contributing databases and the kinds of information they provide are discussed, and issues behind the quality of their annotations are explored. Specifically, this Guide introduces the principal components of the UniProt Knowledgebase, and the differences between them. On reading this Guide, users will be able to: i) identify and explain the characteristic features of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL entries; ii) distinguish annotations that are computed, and hence not experimentally validated; iii) search UniProtKB using keywords, full sequences and peptides, and interpret the results; iv) analyse and track the provenance of annotations; and v) infer which annotations are likely to be accurate and which erroneous. Database management Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction uniprot, Protein sequence databases, Uniprot knowledgebase Beginners 2018-09-08
A Critical Guide to BLAST

This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides an overview of the BLAST similarity search tool, briefly examining the underlying algorithm and its rise to popularity. Several Web-based and stand-alone implementations are reviewed, and key features of typical search...

Keywords: Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction blast, Sequence database searching, Sequence similarity searching

A Critical Guide to BLAST https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-blast This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series provides an overview of the BLAST similarity search tool, briefly examining the underlying algorithm and its rise to popularity. Several Web-based and stand-alone implementations are reviewed, and key features of typical search results are discussed. Specifically, this Guide introduces concepts and theories that underpin the BLAST search tool, and examines features of search outputs important for understanding and interpreting BLAST results. On reading this Guide, users will be able to: i) search a variety of Web-based sequence databases with different query sequences, and alter search parameters; ii) explain a range of typical search parameters, and the likely impacts on search outputs of changing them; iii) analyse the information conveyed in search outputs and infer the significance of reported matches; iv) examine and investigate the annotations of reported matches, and their provenance; and v) compare the outputs of different BLAST implementations and evaluate the implications of any differences. Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction blast, Sequence database searching, Sequence similarity searching Beginners 2018-09-08
A Critical Guide to Unix

This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series briefly introduces the Unix Operating System, and provides a subset of some of the most helpful and commonly used commands, including those that allow various types of search, navigation and file manipulation. Several keystroke...

Keywords: Command line, Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction unix, Unix commands, Unix operating system

A Critical Guide to Unix https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/a-critical-guide-to-unix This Critical Guide in the Introduction to Bioinformatics series briefly introduces the Unix Operating System, and provides a subset of some of the most helpful and commonly used commands, including those that allow various types of search, navigation and file manipulation. Several keystroke short-cuts are also explained, which help to make the routine use of Unix commands more efficient. Specifically, this Guide showcases some of the simplest, most frequently used commands to help new users to understand and gain confidence in using the Unix Operating System. On reading the Guide, users will be able: i) to exploit a range of commands: to manipulate files, directories and processes; to navigate directory structures and explore their contents; to search for files, and search and compare file contents; and to direct command outputs into files or into other commands; and ii) to explain what many simple commands mean and how they’re used. Command line, Introduction bioinformatics, Introduction unix, Unix commands, Unix operating system Beginners 2018-09-08
Introducing Bivi.co

Introduction to the Bivi community presented as the introductory talk at the 1st Bivi Annual Meeting. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics, Pathway or network

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations

Resource type: Video

Introducing Bivi.co https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/introducing-bivi-co Introduction to the Bivi community presented as the introductory talk at the 1st Bivi Annual Meeting. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Prof. Jessie Kennedy Phylogenetics Pathway or network Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations 2016-12-08
Infectious Disease Host/Pathogen Relationships

Bruno Sobral demonstrates how collaboration with the bench scientists to learn about their needs, uses and challenges can lead to design of more effective resources for data exploration and analysis. He emphasises the importance of designing in a user-centric manner and highlights the importance...

Keywords: Populations, HCI

Resource type: Video

Infectious Disease Host/Pathogen Relationships https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/infectious-disease-host-pathogen-relationships Bruno Sobral demonstrates how collaboration with the bench scientists to learn about their needs, uses and challenges can lead to design of more effective resources for data exploration and analysis. He emphasises the importance of designing in a user-centric manner and highlights the importance of human-computer interface professionals in the design process.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Populations, HCI 2017-01-31
Metagenomics

Susannah Tringe talks about metagenomics analysis tools and the challenges of gaining a systems-level understanding of a microbial community. She notes that there are some good analysis tools available for analysis at the 16S sequence and unassembled metagenome level, but more effort into...

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics

Keywords: Genome, Phylogenetics, Populations

Resource type: Video

Metagenomics https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/metagenomics-6625dde2-a7da-4cc2-a51d-14c1c31b51b2 Susannah Tringe talks about metagenomics analysis tools and the challenges of gaining a systems-level understanding of a microbial community. She notes that there are some good analysis tools available for analysis at the 16S sequence and unassembled metagenome level, but more effort into analysis and visualisation solutions are required at the microbial community and ecosystem level.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Phylogenetics Genome, Phylogenetics, Populations 2017-01-31
Geographic & Evolutionary Visualization

Daniel Janies showcases SupraMap, a web-based app that integrates genetic sequences of pathogens with geographic data points to map the spread of diseases and track mutations.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics

Keywords: Phylogenetics, Populations

Resource type: Video

Geographic & Evolutionary Visualization https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/geographic-amp-evolutionary-visualization Daniel Janies showcases SupraMap, a web-based app that integrates genetic sequences of pathogens with geographic data points to map the spread of diseases and track mutations.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Phylogenetics Phylogenetics, Populations 2017-01-31
BBSRC: Data and Data Visualisation

Michael Ball from BBSRC's closing remarks on Data and Data Visualisation from 1st BiVi in 2014. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics, Pathway or network

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations, Information visualisation

Resource type: Video

BBSRC: Data and Data Visualisation https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/bbsrc-data-and-data-visualisation Michael Ball from BBSRC's closing remarks on Data and Data Visualisation from 1st BiVi in 2014. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Michael Ball Phylogenetics Pathway or network Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations, Information visualisation 2017-02-01
Evaluation of Helium: Visualisation of Large Scale Plant Pedigrees

Poster presentation at 1st BiVi in 2014 regarding the user evaluation of the Helium visualisaiton tool. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Keywords: Genome, Populations, HCI

Resource type: Poster

Evaluation of Helium: Visualisation of Large Scale Plant Pedigrees https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/evaluation-of-helium-visualisation-of-large-scale-plant-pedigrees Poster presentation at 1st BiVi in 2014 regarding the user evaluation of the Helium visualisaiton tool. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Dr. Paul Shaw Genome, Populations, HCI 2017-02-02
Art and Science: A partnership catalyzing discovery in biomedicine

A 3rd BiVi 2017 Keynote Presentation by Bang Wong, Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard and Department of Art as Applied to Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineChaired by: Geoff BartonThe data generated by the biomedical research community hold tremendous potential to inform our...

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics, Pathway or network

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations, Communication, Information visualisation

Resource type: Video

Art and Science: A partnership catalyzing discovery in biomedicine https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/art-and-science-a-partnership-catalyzing-discovery-in-biomedicine A 3rd BiVi 2017 Keynote Presentation by Bang Wong, Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard and Department of Art as Applied to Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineChaired by: Geoff BartonThe data generated by the biomedical research community hold tremendous potential to inform our understanding and treatment of disease. The challenge is to ensure that technical and non-technical researchers can access, use and learn from this wealth of data and analytical resources. Bang will present examples of solutions developed at the Broad Institute that draw on art and design to enable scientific discovery.Bang Wong is the creative director of the Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard and an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His work focuses on the design and development of computation-visualization tools to meet the analytical challenges of research data. He leads the data visualization initiative at the Broad and is the founding author of Points of View published by Nature Methods, a series of articles that focus on the fundamental aspects of data presentation in science. Created at: 3rd BiVi Annual Meeting (2017). Bang Wong Phylogenetics Pathway or network Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations, Communication, Information visualisation 2017-05-12
Visualising dynamic genetics in human populations

Genetic and environmental variation affect all complex human traits and disorders. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified some of the specific genetic variants, and we often assume these associations will hold true irrespective of context. However, our research shows...

Keywords: Populations

Resource type: Video

Visualising dynamic genetics in human populations https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/visualising-dynamic-genetics-in-human-populations Genetic and environmental variation affect all complex human traits and disorders. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified some of the specific genetic variants, and we often assume these associations will hold true irrespective of context. However, our research shows that the relationship between genotype and phenotype can change across a lifetime or in different environments. For example, some genetic variants may have larger effects in adulthood or in the centre of cities. Data visualisation plays a vital role in bringing researchers together across disciplines to understand these dynamic patterns of gene-environment interaction. Created at: 3rd BiVi Annual Meeting (2017). Oliver Davis Populations 2017-05-15
Exploring Microscope Platform

How to use the Microscope Platform to annotate and analyze microbial genomes.

Keywords: Annotation, Genomics, Metabolomics, Microbial evolution, Sequence analysis, Transcriptomics

Exploring Microscope Platform https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/exploring-microscope-platform How to use the Microscope Platform to annotate and analyze microbial genomes. Annotation, Genomics, Metabolomics, Microbial evolution, Sequence analysis, Transcriptomics
REPET: TEdenovo tutorial

The TEdenovo pipeline follows a philosophy in three first steps: Detection of repeated sequences (potential TE) Clustering of these sequences Generation of consensus sequences for each cluster, representing the ancestral TE

Keywords: Annotation, Genomics

REPET: TEdenovo tutorial https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/repet-tedenovo-tutorial The TEdenovo pipeline follows a philosophy in three first steps: Detection of repeated sequences (potential TE) Clustering of these sequences Generation of consensus sequences for each cluster, representing the ancestral TE Annotation, Genomics
Chip Seq: Annotation and visualization Lesson

How to add biological meaning to peaks

Keywords: Annotation, Chip-seq, Data Visualization, NGS

Chip Seq: Annotation and visualization Lesson https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/chip-seq-annotation-and-visualization-lesson How to add biological meaning to peaks Annotation, Chip-seq, Data Visualization, NGS
Exploring microbiomes with the MicroScope Platform

This module is separated in different courses: MicroScope: General overview, Keyword search and gene cart functionalities Functional annotation of microbial genomes Functional annotation of microbial genomes: Prediction of enzymatic functions Relational...

Keywords: Annotation, Genomics, Metabolomics, Microbial evolution, Transcriptomics

Exploring microbiomes with the MicroScope Platform https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/exploring-microbiomes-with-the-microscope-platform This module is separated in different courses: MicroScope: General overview, Keyword search and gene cart functionalities Functional annotation of microbial genomes Functional annotation of microbial genomes: Prediction of enzymatic functions Relational annotation of bacterial genomes: synteny Automatic functional assignation and expert annotation of genes Relational annotation of bacterial genomes: phylogenetic profiles Relational annotation of bacterial genomes: pan-genome analysis Relational annotation of bacterial genomes: metabolic pathways Syntactic re-annotation of public microbial genomes Syntactic annotation of microbial genomes Annotation, Genomics, Metabolomics, Microbial evolution, Transcriptomics
Chip Seq: Annotation and visualization Tutorial

Global Objective Given a set of ChIP-seq peaks annotate them in order to find associated genes, genomic categories and functional terms.

Keywords: Annotation, Chip-seq, Data Visualization, NGS

Chip Seq: Annotation and visualization Tutorial https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/chip-seq-annotation-and-visualization-tutorial Global Objective Given a set of ChIP-seq peaks annotate them in order to find associated genes, genomic categories and functional terms. Annotation, Chip-seq, Data Visualization, NGS
REPET: TEdannot Tutorial

TEannot is able to annote a genome using DNA sequences library. This library can be a predicted TE library built by TEdenovo

Keywords: Annotation, Genomics

REPET: TEdannot Tutorial https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/repet-tedannot-tutorial TEannot is able to annote a genome using DNA sequences library. This library can be a predicted TE library built by TEdenovo Annotation, Genomics
Who is doing what on the cheese surface? Overview of the cheese microbial ecosystem functioning by metatranscriptomic analyses

Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a...

Keywords: metagenomics

Who is doing what on the cheese surface? Overview of the cheese microbial ecosystem functioning by metatranscriptomic analyses https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/who-is-doing-what-on-the-cheese-surface-overview-of-the-cheese-microbial-ecosystem-functioning-by-metatranscriptomic-analyses-55c4b5d0-ba6e-4ae0-879f-7bc27c10b3eb Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We used an iterative sensory procedure to select a simplified microbial consortium, composed of only nine species (three yeasts and six bacteria), producing the odor of Livarot-type cheese when inoculated in a sterile cheese curd. All the genomes were sequenced in order to determine the functional capacities of the different species and facilitate RNA-Seq data analyses. We followed the ripening process of experimental cheeses made using this consortium during four weeks, by metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. We next applied the same approach to investigate the activity of the microorganisms in real cheeses, namely Reblochon-style cheeses. This provided useful insights into the physiological changes that occur during cheese ripening, such as changes in energy substrates, anabolic reactions, or stresses. metagenomics 2016-12-15 2017-01-11
Soil metagenomics, potential and pitfalls

The soil microorganisms are responsible for a range of critical functions including those that directly affect our quality of life (e.g., antibiotic production and resistance – human and animal health, nitrogen fixation -agriculture, pollutant degradation – environmental bioremediation)....

Keywords: metagenomics

Soil metagenomics, potential and pitfalls https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/soil-metagenomics-potential-and-pitfalls-04d3bb46-36ba-47c0-9993-9c7d0aacad32 The soil microorganisms are responsible for a range of critical functions including those that directly affect our quality of life (e.g., antibiotic production and resistance – human and animal health, nitrogen fixation -agriculture, pollutant degradation – environmental bioremediation). Nevertheless, genome structure information has been restricted by a large extent to a small fraction of cultivated species. This limitation can be circumvented now by modern alternative approaches including metagenomics or single cell genomics. Metagenomics includes the data treatment of DNA sequences from many members of the microbial community, in order to either extract a specific microorganism’s genome sequence or to evaluate the community function based on the relative quantities of different gene families. In my talk I will show how these metagenomic datasets can be used to estimate and compare the functional potential of microbial communities from various environments with a special focus on antibiotic resistance genes. However, metagenomic datasets can also in some cases be partially assembled into longer sequences representing microbial genetic structures for trying to correlate different functions to their co-location on the same genetic structure. I will show how the microbial community composition of a natural grassland soil characterized by extremely high microbial diversity could be managed for sequentially attempt to reconstruct some bacterial genomes. Metagenomics can also be used to exploit the genetic potential of environmental microorganisms. I will present an integrative approach coupling rrs phylochip and high throughput shotgun sequencing to investigate the shift in bacterial community structure and functions after incubation with chitin. In a second step, these functions of potential industrial interest can be discovered by using hybridization of soil metagenomic DNA clones spotted on high density membranes by a mix of oligonucleotide probes designed to target genes encoding for these enzymes. After affiliation of the positive hybridizing spots to the corresponding clones in the metagenomic library the inserts are sequenced, DNA assembled and annotated leading to identify new coding DNA sequences related to genes of interest with a good coverage but a low similarity against closest hits in the databases confirming novelty of the detected and cloned genes. metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
Welcome message

Presentation of the workshop (Chairman: Claudine Médigue)

Keywords: metagenomics

Welcome message https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/welcome-message-69dc597e-f839-448f-9c9d-3622ddffd592 Presentation of the workshop (Chairman: Claudine Médigue) metagenomics 2016-12-15 2017-01-11
Sequencing 6000 chloroplast genomes : the PhyloAlps project

Biodiversity is now commonly described by DNA based approches. Several actors are currently using DNA to describe biodiversity, and most of the time they use different genetic markers that is hampering an easy sharing of the accumulated knowledges. Taxonomists rely a lot on the DNA Barcoding...

Keywords: metagenomics

Sequencing 6000 chloroplast genomes : the PhyloAlps project https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/sequencing-6000-chloroplast-genomes-the-phyloalps-project-a2b30d75-061a-4663-a5b8-593842df23bf Biodiversity is now commonly described by DNA based approches. Several actors are currently using DNA to describe biodiversity, and most of the time they use different genetic markers that is hampering an easy sharing of the accumulated knowledges. Taxonomists rely a lot on the DNA Barcoding initiative, phylogeneticists often prefer markers with better phylogenic properties, and ecologists, with the coming of the DNA metabarcoding, look for a third class of markers easiest to amplify from environmental DNA. Nevertheless they have all the same need of the knowledge accumulated by the others. But having different markers means that the sequecences have been got from different individuals in differente lab, following various protocoles. On that base, building a clean reference database, merging for each species all the available markers becomes a challenge. With the phyloAlps project we implement genome skimming at a large scale and propose it as a new way to set up such universal reference database usable by taxonomists, phylogeneticists, and ecologists. The Phyloalps project is producing for each species of the Alpine flora at least a genome skim composed of six millions of 100bp sequence reads. From such data it is simple to extract all chloroplastic, mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA markers commonely used. Moreover, most of the time we can get access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence and to a shallow sequencing of many nuclear genes. This methodes have already been successfully applied to algeae, insects and others animals. With the new single cell sequencing methods it will be applicable to most of the unicellular organisms. The good question is now : Can we consider the genome skimming as the next-generation DNA barcode ? metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
From Samples to Data : Assuring Downstream Analysis with Upstream Planning

Metagenomic studies have gained increasing popularity in the years since the introduction of next generation sequencing. NGS allows for the production of millions of reads for each sample without the intermediate step of cloning. However, just as in the past, the quality of the data generate by...

Keywords: metagenomics

From Samples to Data : Assuring Downstream Analysis with Upstream Planning https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/from-samples-to-data-assuring-downstream-analysis-with-upstream-planning-6fac0f49-b453-4c15-a409-9753fb27ee9b Metagenomic studies have gained increasing popularity in the years since the introduction of next generation sequencing. NGS allows for the production of millions of reads for each sample without the intermediate step of cloning. However, just as in the past, the quality of the data generate by this powerful technology depends on sample preparation, library construction and the selection of appropriate sequencing technology and sequencing depth. Here we explore the different variables involved in the process of preparing samples for sequencing analysis including sample collection, DNA extraction and library construction. We also examine the various sequencing technologies deployed for routine metagenomic analysis and considerations for their use in different model systems including humans, mouse and the environment. Future developments such as long-reads will also be discussed to provide a complete picture of important aspects prior to data analyses which play a critical role in the success of metagenomic studies. metagenomics 2017-01-11
Revealing and analyzing microbial networks: from topology to functional behaviors

Understanding the interactions between microbial communities and their environment well enough to be able to predict diversity on the basis of physicochemical parameters is a fundamental pursuit of microbial ecology that still eludes us. However, modeling microbial communities is a complicated...

Keywords: metagenomics

Revealing and analyzing microbial networks: from topology to functional behaviors https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/revealing-and-analyzing-microbial-networks-from-topology-to-functional-behaviors-14d83c7f-c5f9-4738-8cd5-42e48a1088f7 Understanding the interactions between microbial communities and their environment well enough to be able to predict diversity on the basis of physicochemical parameters is a fundamental pursuit of microbial ecology that still eludes us. However, modeling microbial communities is a complicated task, because (i) communities are complex, (ii) most are described qualitatively, and (iii) quantitative understanding of the way communities interacts with their surroundings remains incomplete. Within this seminar, we will illustrate two complementary approaches that aim to overcome these points in different manners. metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
Rationale and Tools to look for the unknown in (metagenomic) sequence data

The interpretation of metagenomic data (environmental, microbiome, etc, ...) usually involves the recognition of sequence similarity with previously identified (micro-organisms). This is for instance the main approach to taxonomical assignments and a starting point to most diversity analyses....

Keywords: metagenomics

Rationale and Tools to look for the unknown in (metagenomic) sequence data https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/rationale-and-tools-to-look-for-the-unknown-in-metagenomic-sequence-data-5dd1e1a8-6db2-4b78-b1fc-60e1a5fbcee8 The interpretation of metagenomic data (environmental, microbiome, etc, ...) usually involves the recognition of sequence similarity with previously identified (micro-organisms). This is for instance the main approach to taxonomical assignments and a starting point to most diversity analyses. When exploring beyond the frontier of known biology, one should expect a large proportion of environmental sequences not exhibiting any significant similarity with known organisms. Notably, this is the case for eukaryotic viruses belonging to new families, for which the proportion of "no match" could reach 90%. Most metagenomics studies tend to ignore this large fraction of sequences that might be the equivalent of "black matter" in Biology. We will present some of the ideas and tools we are using to extract that information from large metagenomics data sets in search of truly unknown microorganisms. One of the tools, "Seqtinizer", an interactive contig selection/inspection interface will also be presented in the context of "pseudo-metagenomic" projects, where the main organism under genomic study (such as sponges or corals) turns out to be (highly) mixed with an unexpected population of food, passing-by, or symbiotic microorganisms. metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
Reconstructing genomes from metagenomes: The holy grail of microbiology

Shotgun metagenomics provides insights into a larger context of naturally occurring microbial genomes when short reads are assembled into contiguous DNA segments (contigs). Contigs are often orders of magnitude longer than individual sequences, offering improved annotations, and key information...

Keywords: metagenomics

Reconstructing genomes from metagenomes: The holy grail of microbiology https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/reconstructing-genomes-from-metagenomes-the-holy-grail-of-microbiology-be78338f-13ef-40d6-92cf-621fbccf8808 Shotgun metagenomics provides insights into a larger context of naturally occurring microbial genomes when short reads are assembled into contiguous DNA segments (contigs). Contigs are often orders of magnitude longer than individual sequences, offering improved annotations, and key information about the organization of genes in cognate genomes. Several factors affect the assembly performance, and the feasibility of the assembly-based approaches varies across environments. However, increasing read lengths, novel experimental approaches, advances in computational tools and resources, and improvements in assembly algorithms and pipelines render the assembly-based metagenomic workflow more and more accessible. The utility of metagenomic assembly remarkably increases when contigs are organized into metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Often-novel MAGs frequently provide deeper insights into bacterial lifestyles that would otherwise remain unknown as evidenced by recent discoveries. The increasing rate of the recovery of MAGs presents new opportunities to link environmental distribution patterns of microbial populations and their functional potential, and transforms the field of microbiology by providing a more complete understanding of the microbial life, ecology, and evolution. metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
Prokaryotic Phylogeny on the Fly: databases and tools for online taxonomic identification

PPF (Prokaryotic Phylogeny on the Fly) is an automated pipeline allowing to compute molecular phylogenies for prokarotic organisms. It is based on a set of specialized databases devoted to SSU rRNA, the most commonly used marker for bacterial txonomic identification. Those databases are splitted...

Keywords: metagenomics

Prokaryotic Phylogeny on the Fly: databases and tools for online taxonomic identification https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/prokaryotic-phylogeny-on-the-fly-databases-and-tools-for-online-taxonomic-identification-84732559-32a2-4c4c-9c94-2bd3c3773717 PPF (Prokaryotic Phylogeny on the Fly) is an automated pipeline allowing to compute molecular phylogenies for prokarotic organisms. It is based on a set of specialized databases devoted to SSU rRNA, the most commonly used marker for bacterial txonomic identification. Those databases are splitted into different subsets using phylogenetic information. The procedure for computing a phylogeny is completely automated. Homologous sequence are first recruited through a BLAST search performed on a sequence (or a set of sequences). Then the homologous sequences detected are aligned using one of the multiple sequence alignment programs provided in the pipeline (MAFFT, MUSCLE or CLUSTALO). The alignment is then filtered using BMGE and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree is computed using the program FastTree. The tree can be rooted with an outgroup provided by the user and its leaves are coloured with a scheme related to the taxonomy of the sequences. The main advantage provided by PPF is that its databases are generated using a phylogeny-oriented procedure and and therefore much more efficient for phylogentic analyses that "generic" collections such as SILVA (in the case SSU rRNA) por GenBank. It is therefore much more suited to compute prokaryotic molecular phylogenies than related systems such as the Phylogeny.fr online system. PPF can be accessed online at https://umr5558-bibiserv.univ-lyon1.fr/lebibi/PPF-in.cgi metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11
New perspectives on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria - linking genomes to physiology

It is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle that nitrification is catalyzed by two distinct clades of microorganisms. First, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia to nitrite, which subsequently is oxidized to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing...

Keywords: metagenomics

New perspectives on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria - linking genomes to physiology https://tess.elixir-europe.org/materials/new-perspectives-on-nitrite-oxidizing-bacteria-linking-genomes-to-physiology-6bc8b25e-043d-47f1-b184-c776d595fb7b It is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle that nitrification is catalyzed by two distinct clades of microorganisms. First, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia to nitrite, which subsequently is oxidized to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The latter were traditionally perceived as physiologically restricted organisms and were less intensively studied than other nitrogen-cycling microorganisms. This picture is contrasted by new discoveries of an unexpected high diversity of mostly uncultured NOB and a great physiological versatility, which includes complex microbe-microbe interactions and lifestyles outside the nitrogen cycle. Most surprisingly, close relatives to NOB perform complete nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate), a process that had been postulated to occur under conditions selecting for low growth rates but high growth yields. The existence of Nitrospira species that encode all genes required for ammonia and nitrite oxidation was first detected by metagenomic analyses of an enrichment culture for nitrogen-transforming microorganisms sampled from the anoxic compartment of a recirculating aquaculture system biofilter. Batch incubations and FISH-MAR experiments showed that these Nitrospira indeed formed nitrate from the aerobic oxidation of ammonia, and used the energy derived from complete nitrification for carbon fixation, thus proving that they indeed represented the long-sought-after comammox organisms. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes were distinct from canonical AMOs, therefore rendering recent horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. Instead, their AMO displayed highest similarities to the “unusual” particulate methane monooxygenase from Crenothrix polyspora, thus shedding new light onto the function of this sequence group. This recognition of a novel AMO type indicates that a whole group of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms has been overlooked, and will improve our understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of this functional group. Data mining of publicly available metagenomes already indicated a widespread occurrence in natural and engineered environments like aquifers and paddy soils, and drinking and wastewater treatment systems. metagenomics 2016-12-16 2017-01-11